Bore guides are designed to eliminate solvent drip into the stock and more importantly, to guide the cleaning rod through the chamber and minimize the risk of damage to the throat area of the bore.
Bore guides should be purchased to fit your particular caliber/action. While most are designed for use with bolt action rifles, some manufacturers offer adapters for other types of actions.
My only experience is with the Pro-Shot bore guide and it works great. Simply replace the bolt with the bore guide and you are set. They run about $20. Shown here with the optional solvent port which is kind of dual purpose. You can either wait to add solvent until the dry patch is under the port or draw the patch back to the port and add more solvent. If memory serves me, Jim Carmichel said something along the lines of "don't drag a dirty patch back through the bore, instead push it through and let it drop off the end." This makes sense to me so I don't use the port to add additional solvent. Further, it is a good idea to cover the stock with a clean cloth.
Other brands on the market include MTM, Stoney Point, Sinclair International and Dewey. Prices range from $6 to $22.
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